Visitors of this
site, technicians, research workers, physicians, equipment constructors,
employees of electrode producing corporations etc. are encouraged to
comment upon the
Memorandum for compatibility
of ionized magnesium measuring equipment.
International Congress For the Assessment of
Stress Intensity and Stress Compatibility in Large Groups
.........determinationof ionized magnesium
only makes sense to exclude pseudohypomagnesemia
(Klaus Dörner, in “Labor und Diagnose”, by L.Thomas, p 348,
Determination of ionized magnesium is simple, hardly invasive,
sensitive, cheap and can be performed by comparatively unskilled
personnel with transportable equipment.
Determination of total and bound magnesium cannot be performed on the
spot and needs time and a laboratory.
On the other hand, determination of ionized magnesium alone is
impracticable, as K. Dörner rightly states. An epidemiological survey
of ionized magnesium in large groups may just have its merits, but
measurement of magnesium status in individuals by determination of basal
values of ionized magnesium alone is impossible, because:
Moderately increased magnesium uptake is not necessarily
followed by an increase of the ionized fraction, but rather by an
increase of the bound fraction.
Only appreciably increased magnesium uptake may also
increase the ionized fraction.
However, an increased ionized fraction often follows
stress induced cell depletion of magnesium.
Therefore, a differential diagnosis of the circumstances in which
certain levels of ionized magnesium occur is inevitable.
In general, the determination of increase or decrease of ionized
magnesium before and after acute exercise could already give some idea
of the origin of high or low basal values.
Moreover, simultaneous determination of ionized magnesium and other
easily and cheaply measurable on-the-spot parameters such as blood
gases, lactate, glucose, amino acids and white blood cell numbers and
function, could characterize the stress status at sampling time and
therefore be helpful for differential diagnosis.
A determination of ionized magnesium within these parameters seems to
make sense, since, together with ionized magnesium, they would mutually
describe and support each other`s position. This information could then
be used for the assessment of the stress status of an individual and
could be much more useful and informative than a mere electrolyte
Possibilities for the application of this method – beyond the scope
of basic research – could include sports medicine, ancillary data for
psychological assessments, defence medicine, preventive medicine, space
medicine, gerontology, prognostic medicine, food and health science,
objectivation of the outcome of health cures and much more.
This may open a much wider market for manufacturers of magnesium
electrodes, who, up to now, mostly catered for intensive care units and
basic and applied research laboratories.
However, disagreement about the validity of data produced by
different equipmentfrom different manufacturers has considerably
prohibited research into ionized magnesium, because data obtained with
one make of equipment has been regularly criticized by the users of the
This attitude is still prohibiting world wide acknowledgement of the
merits of ionized magnesium assessment, which could – within the
borders sketched above – be beneficial for lot of different
A national consensus about high and low margins of ionized serum
magnesium, was set up in Germany and Austria. However, it was not very
helpful, since the multinational manufacturers continue to disagree
about calculation quotients or modes of comparison between their
Discussion about critical high or low margins may even not be
too important, since it was recently shown that knowledge about the
dynamics of ionized magnesium may be of higher diagnostic value than
evaluation of basal concentrations.
Therefore, slightl differences in absolute values, obtained using
different equipment may be even less important in the future.
In conclusion, for the benefit of magnesium research, an agreement
should be sought between all electrode manufacturers. This would
encourage them to introduce acceptable data transformation systems into
their equipment which would render all ionized magnesium measurements
comparable, regardless of the measuring apparatus.
Such an agreement would immediately increase world wide acceptance of
the measurement of ionized magnesium; scientists as well as
manufacturers would benefit.
Dear Participants of our congress:
In our last session on Saturday, November 27th 1999, we agreed, that
I would undertake to collect all reactions to our memorandum as addenda
and put everything in our website for 14 days, adding the names of the
attendees and presumptive supporters of the memorandum. Those
presumptive supporters who finally decide NOT to agree, will please send
a mail within 14 days so that their agreement can be withdrawn. After 14
days the memorandum with the names of the reamaining supporters will be
sent to Magnesium Bulletin and published in the 1st issue of 2000.
Written comments of participants to the memorandum DURING the
Kollmann: Development of inert-gas probes.
Seelig: what is needed is greater reliability (sensitivity) of
the electrodes. Has information that some electrodes have been modified
to make the service more competitive (financially), but at the cost of
Pinter: underlines the importance of this kind of stress
assessment in gerontology.
Castell: accepts the principle as good, wants prior
explanation, why Mg is important
Kaciuba-Uscilko: Agreed, no comments
Nazar: Agreed, no comments
Temmel: Agreed, no comments
If I do not agree with the memorandum, I will withdraw my name
within 14 days.
Bradshaw, Col., Dr.
Frise, Brig. Gen., Dr.
Kim, S. W. Col.